Scripps Institution of Oceanography

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GRADUATE EDUCATION
Old Scripps Building 22, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
http://scrippseducation.ucsd.edu/

All courses, faculty listings, and curricular and degree requirements described herein are subject to change or deletion without notice. Updates may be found on the Academic Senate website: http://senate.ucsd.edu/catalog-copy/approved-updates/.

Contiguous Bachelor’s/Master’s Earth Sciences Degree Program

The program leading to a bachelor of science and a master of science in earth sciences is offered to undergraduate students who are enrolled in the earth sciences major, and to qualified students who are completing a specialization or minor in earth sciences. It is open only to UC San Diego undergraduates, and entails participation in research in an area of the earth sciences to be determined jointly by the student and a committee of earth sciences faculty members from the Department of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Applications will only be accepted during the final quarter of the applicant’s junior year, or the first or second quarter of the senior year. A minimum undergraduate GPA of 3.0 overall and 3.3 in upper-division earth sciences courses is required for admission. Applications must include a written statement of purpose, a summary of the research proposal, and a letter of support from the potential MS thesis adviser. Students must complete requirements for the BS before they are enrolled in the MS program, and are expected to meet the requirements for the MS within three consecutive academic quarters after obtaining the BS. Students may be dropped from the program if breaks in enrollment occur. The Department of Scripps Institution of Oceanography does not have financial aid available for students enrolled in the contiguous BS/MS program. Please contact the undergraduate education program office in Galbraith Hall, room 188, for information.

The Graduate Programs

The Department of Scripps Institution of Oceanography offers instruction leading to MS and PhDs in oceanography, marine biology, and earth sciences. Scripps Oceanography offers both an MS program and a PhD program. Students can apply to be admitted into Scripps Oceanography graduate studies through either the MS or PhD programs. Both programs offer admission once a year. The PhD program is strongly research oriented and is for students whose final degree objective is the PhD. The MS program is intended to be a terminal degree; however, students enrolled enrolled in the PhD program may obtain the MS on the way to completing the PhD program.

Climate-Ocean-Atmosphere Program (COAP)

Curricular Groups within COAP:

Applied Ocean Science (AOS)

Climate Sciences (CS)

Physical Oceanography (PO)

Degrees typically offered for students enrolled in COAP:*

MS in Oceanography

PhD in Oceanography

*Students can petition for the degree title based on approval of their Guidance Committee chair and the department chair.

Geosciences of the Earth, Oceans, and Planets (GEO)

Curricular Groups within GEO:

Geophysics (GP)

Geosciences (GS)

Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry (MCG)

Degrees typically offered for students enrolled in GEO:*

MS in Earth Sciences

MS in Oceanography

PhD in Earth Sciences

PhD in Oceanography

*Students can petition for the degree title based on approval of their Guidance Committee chair and the department chair.

Ocean Biosciences Program (OBP)

Curricular Groups within OBP:

Biological Oceanography (BO)

Marine Biology (MB)

Degrees typically offered for students enrolled in OBP:*

MS in Marine Biology

MS in Oceanography

PhD in Marine Biology

PhD in Oceanography

*Students can petition for the degree title based on approval of their Guidance Committee chair and the department chair.

Overview of the Academic Programs and their Curricular Groups

The Department of Scripps Institution of Oceanography is organized into three academic programs: Climate-Ocean-Atmosphere Program (COAP); Geosciences of the Earth, Oceans, and Planets (GEO); and Ocean Biosciences Program (OBP). Each of these programs is responsible for all graduate educational activities in its area, including teaching, advising, and examining.

Students choose a program when applying. Upon admission, students are assigned an advisor, who is the chair of the three-person guidance committee. Students are assigned to a curricular group based on their interests. Although students may change curricular groups in the fall quarter, they must commit to a curricular group early on because this determines which department exam they will take.

The academic programs are umbrellas for curricular groups as follows:

Climate-Ocean-Atmosphere Program (COAP)

Applied Ocean Science (AOS) is a multidisciplinary program focused on the application of advanced technology to ocean exploration and observation. AOS students perform research in marine acoustics, optics, electromagnetics, geophysics, ecology, sediment transport, coastal processes, physical oceanography, and air-sea interaction. The emphasis is on the resolution of key scientific issues through novel technological development. The science focus of the Scripps AOS Program is complemented by parallel applied ocean science programs in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (MAE) and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE). Students have access to professors, courses, and research facilities across all three departments.

Climate Sciences (CS) concerns the study of the climate system of the Earth with emphasis on the physical, dynamical, and chemical interactions of the atmosphere, ocean, land, ice, and the terrestrial and marine biospheres. The program encompasses changes on seasonal to interannual time scales and those induced by human activities, as well as paleoclimatic changes on time scales from centuries to millions of years. Examples of current research activities include: interannual climate variability; physics and dynamics of El Niño; studies of present and future changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere in relation to global warming and ozone depletion; effects of cloud and cloud feedbacks in the climate system; paleoclimate reconstructions from ice cores, banded corals, tree-rings, and deep-sea sediments; the origin of ice ages; air-sea interactions; climate theory; terrestrial and marine ecosystem response to global change.

Physical Oceanography (PO) is the field of study that deals with mechanisms of energy transfer through the sea and across its boundaries, and with the physical interactions of the sea with its surroundings, especially including the influence of the seas on the climate of the atmosphere. Research activities within this curricular group are both observational and theoretical and include: study of the general circulation of the oceans, including the relations of ocean currents to driving forces and constraints of the ocean basins; fluctuations of currents, and the transport of properties; the mechanisms of transport of energy, momentum, and physical substances within the sea and across its boundaries; properties of wind waves, internal waves, tsunami, and planetary waves; the thermodynamic description of the sea as a system not in equilibrium; optical and acoustic properties of the sea; and the influence of surf on near-shore currents and the transport of sediments.

Geosciences of the Earth, Oceans, and Planets (GEO)

Geophysics (GP) emphasizes the application of general principles of mathematics and experimental physics to fundamental problems of the oceans, the atmosphere, the oceanic and continental lithosphere, the cryosphere, and the crust and deep interior of the Earth. Research interests of the group include: observational and theoretical studies of electric and magnetic fields in the oceans and on the land; paleomagnetism; theoretical seismology with special emphasis on the structure of the Earth from free-oscillation and body wave studies; broadband observational seismology, including ocean bottom and multichannel seismology; earthquake source mechanisms; the measurements of slow crustal deformations using satellite and observatory methods on continents and in the oceans; marine geodynamics and tectonophysics; gravity measurements; geophysical inverse theory; observations of the ice sheets; magnetohydrodynamics of the core of the Earth; geophysical instrumentation for oceanic and continental geophysical measurements; acoustic source mechanisms and propagation in the oceans and the atmosphere.

Geosciences (GS) emphasizes the application of general principles of geology, geochemistry, and geophysics to problems in the marine and terrestrial environments of the Earth. Graduate students routinely participate in expeditions at sea and on land and many doctoral theses evolve from these experiences. Research areas in the geosciences include the origin and evolution of the ocean-atmosphere system, global climate, and biosphere; geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oceanic crustal rocks and near-shore environments; magmatic, tectonic and structural evolution of the oceans, plate margins, and back-arc basins; the role of fluids in the crust; chemistry of rare gases in active volcanoes; the use of natural nuclear processes for understanding physical and chemical processes in the Earth; paleomagnetic applications in geology and geophysics.

Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry (MCG) concerns chemical and geochemical processes operating in a broad range of study areas: the oceans, the solid earth, the atmosphere, marine organisms, polar ice sheets, lakes, meteorites, and the solar system. Areas of advanced study and research include the physical and inorganic chemistry of seawater; ocean circulation and mixing based on chemical and isotopic tracers; marine organic chemistry; marine bioinorganic chemistry; geochemical interactions of sediments with seawater and interstitial waters; geochemistries of volcanic and geothermal phenomena; chemical exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere; geochemical cycles of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and other elements; isotopic geochemistry of the solid earth and meteorites; atmospheric trace gas chemistry; paleoatmospheric composition recorded in polar ice cores, corals and sediments; and chemistry of lakes and other freshwater systems. Studies are typically interdisciplinary and involve integration of chemical concepts with information about the physical, biological, or geological processes that influence natural systems. Students in the marine chemistry and geochemistry curricular group are encouraged to explore these links.

Ocean Biosciences Program (OBP)

Biological Oceanography (BO) is the interdisciplinary study of ocean ecology: how populations of marine organisms interact with one another and with their physical and chemical environment and how marine communities respond to natural and human impacts on the ocean environment. Using a variety of field, laboratory, and modeling techniques, specific research projects seek to understand the processes and mechanisms that drive the dynamics of pelagic and benthic organisms and ecosystems. Active areas of interest range from coastal wetlands, kelp forests, and coral reefs to the open ocean, from the surface ocean to the deep sea, and from tropical to polar habitats.

Research topics include microbial ecology, primary and secondary productivity, population dynamics, and connectivity, food-web interactions, carbon and nutrient cycling, fishery biology and management, conservation biology, systematics and biogeography, population genetics and evolution, behavior as it affects organism distributions, life history strategies and predator-prey relationships, and the impacts of climate change. Development and testing of new tools (molecular, optical, acoustic), design of sampling programs, and statistical/mathematical analyses of data also are significant activities.

Marine Biology (MB) is the study of marine organisms. It is concerned with evolutionary, organismic, genetic, genomic, physiological, and biochemical processes in these organisms, and the relationship between them and their biotic and physical environment. Marine biology encompasses several major areas of modern biology, and is interpreted by understanding the physical and chemical dynamics of the oceans. Faculty research focuses on microbiology, photobiology, invertebrate biology, vertebrate biology, high-pressure biology, deep-sea biology, developmental biology, genetics, comparative biochemistry, ecotoxicology, physiology, behavior, ecology, biogeography, taxonomy, and evolution. Processes ranging from coral larvae recruitment to the role of bacteria in marine food web dynamics are under study in over twenty independent research laboratories.

Within MB is the Marine Chemical Biology (MCB) track. MCB is an interfacial discipline combining the fields of chemistry and biology to study and manipulate biological systems with the use of chemical, biochemical and genetic techniques and tools. Currently most of the investigations in the MCB track are focused on the discovery and application of marine microbial natural products and the study of biochemical processes utilized to create these unique molecules. Marine natural products are amongst some of the most structurally novel in the natural world, and their chemical description is critical to developing their full biomedical and biotechnological value as well as exploring their functional roles in our natural world. Understanding the biosynthesis of these marine natural products by a combination of organic chemistry and recombinant biology approaches lays the foundation for the discovery and application of novel biosynthetic enzymes and the rational metabolic engineering of designer molecules. Some of these metabolites may have utility as biological reagents, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, biofuels, or other commodity chemicals. Innovative analytical methods are also being utilized to probe the sites of natural products’ biosynthesis in complex associations of marine species, including those involved in symbiotic relationships.

Admission Requirements for Graduate Programs

General Admission Requirements

Candidates for admission to the MS or PhD programs should have a bachelor’s degree in one of the physical, biological, or earth sciences. Some curricular groups accept students with bachelor’s degrees in mathematics or engineering science (see below). A scholastic average of 3.0 or better in upper-division courses, or prior graduate study, is required. The student’s preparation should include

  1. mathematics through differential and integral calculus
  2. physics, one year with laboratory (the course should stress the fundamentals of mechanics, electricity, magnetism, optics, and thermodynamics, and should use calculus in its exposition)
  3. chemistry, one year with laboratory
  4. an additional year of physics, chemistry, or mathematics
  5. All applicants are required to submit scores from the general test of the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) given by the Educational Testing Service of Princeton, New Jersey. Applicants to the Ocean Biosciences Program, additionally, should take one GRE subject test of their own choice.

All international applicants whose native language is not English and whose undergraduate education was conducted in a language other than English must take the TOEFL and submit their test scores to the UC San Diego Office of Graduate Admissions.

Additional Admission Requirements for Curricular Programs

Each curricular group requires additional preparation for admission to its MS or PhD programs. The specific additional requirements for each curricular group are below. Special consideration occasionally can be given to candidates with outstanding records who do not meet all required preadmission criteria.

Climate-Ocean-Atmosphere Program (COAP)

Applied Ocean Science
Climate Sciences
Physical Oceanography

Geosciences of the Earth, Oceans, and Planets (GEO)

Geophysics
Geosciences
Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry

Ocean Biosciences Program (OBP)

Biological Oceanography
Marine Biology

Marine Biology       

Marine Chemical Biology Track

The Master of Science

The Department of Scripps Institution of Oceanography offers instruction leading to master of science (MS) in oceanography, marine biology, and earth sciences. The curricular requirements for each academic program are the same for students admitted to the MS program and students obtaining an MS on the way to the PhD. The students in applied ocean science and physical oceanography curricular groups are typically awarded an MS in oceanography. The students in climate science, geophysics, geosciences, and marine chemistry and geochemistry curricular groups are typically awarded an MS in earth sciences or oceanography. The students in biological oceanography and marine biology curricular groups are typically awarded an MS in marine biology or oceanography. Students can petition the appropriate degree title based on approval of their guidance committee chair and the department chair.

Curricular Requirements

Plan I—Thesis

This course of study involves both course work and research; culminating in the preparation of a thesis. A total of thirty-six units of credit is required: eighteen units must be in graduate course work, including at least twelve units in graduate-level courses in the major field; twelve additional units in graduate or upper-division courses; and six units in research work leading to the thesis. Students interested in completing Plan I should seek approval from their guidance committee prior to enrollment.

Plan II—Comprehensive Exam

This course of study involves course work and requires students to pass a comprehensive final examination, also referred to as the departmental examination. A total of thirty-six units of credit is required: twenty-four units in graduate course work, including at least fourteen units in graduate-level courses in the major field; and twelve additional units in graduate or upper-division courses.

All Plan II MS candidates normally will be required to take a departmental examination at the end of spring quarter of the first year. The examination will be oral and/or written depending on the curricular group.

Programs of Study

Programs of study vary widely among the curricular groups, and admitted master’s students and PhD students who would like to obtain the MS are expected to enroll in required courses as specified below. Both master’s students and PhD students are assigned a guidance committee consisting of three faculty members. The guidance committee is charged with advising the student. The intention is to provide individualized guidance to students, particularly including advice about courses of study that may reach beyond a single curricular area, and to ensure that students have taken all necessary courses to prepare for the departmental exam.

Climate-Ocean-Atmosphere Program (COAP)

The curricular group programs of study are as follows:

Applied Ocean Science Curriculum

The applied ocean science academic program is designed to provide both a broad background and a core technical base to support the diverse interests and activities of the students.

Required course work (20 units):

Any two of the following SIO introductory courses:

Elective course work (at least 16 units):

Students may fulfill the remaining sixteen units of required course work through elective course offerings. These courses will be tailored to individual interests with the approval of the guidance committee chair and will typically include at least six units in research work. In addition, enrollment in SIO 208 (Seminar in Applied Ocean Sciences, one unit per quarter) is expected during the student’s entire period of study. SIO 208 serves as a communications bridge across the program.

Comprehensive examination (MS Plan II students only):

The applied ocean science departmental examination is based on the core technical courses SIO 214A, SIO 202A and 202B, and two of the four introductory courses (SIO 210, SIO 240, SIO 260, SIO 280), chosen by the student. The exam has both oral and written components.

Climate Sciences Curriculum

The emphasis of climate sciences is on education through interdisciplinary research. Though the group stresses interactions across disciplines, students will specialize in a particular subdiscipline or track that will be chosen by the student following discussions with their guidance committee soon after arrival. Examples of current tracks include: (1) atmospheric/ocean/climate dynamics and physics; (2) atmospheric chemistry (emphasizing climatic interactions); and (3) paleoclimate studies. Additional course requirements for these tracks will be tailored to the needs of the individual student.

Required course work (20 units):
Elective course work (16 units):

Students are expected to supplement their backgrounds with four additional courses, including, for most climate sciences students, at least one additional quarter of fluid dynamics. These additional course(s) will be chosen in consultation with the students’ guidance committee.

Comprehensive examination:

The climate sciences departmental exam consists of a written portion and an oral portion.

Physical Oceanography Curriculum

The physical oceanography curriculum combines a comprehensive program of course work with individually tailored specialization to meet student needs.

Required course work (20 units selected from the following designated courses):
Elective course work (16 units):

Students are required to take four additional four-unit graduate courses to be chosen in consultation with the Guidance Committee chair. As part of the overall requirement, course work should include a breadth component of two or more four-unit courses in other scientific disciplines. These might come from the Scripps Oceanography core courses in other oceanographic disciplines (SIO 240, Marine Geology; SIO 260, Marine Chemistry; SIO 280, Biological Oceanography) or from related graduate-level courses taught at UC San Diego.

Comprehensive examination:

The physical oceanography MS departmental examination covers the material in the nine courses chosen by the student.

Geosciences of the Earth, Oceans, and Planets

Geophysics Curriculum

The geophysics master’s degree provides a solid grounding in the fundamentals of geophysics for students intending to pursue professional positions in government, industry, or nonprofit organizations or to apply to PhD programs. Two different degree options are available:

Plan I—Thesis. This involves both course work and research, culminating in the preparation of a thesis. A total of thirty-six units of credit is required: Eighteen units must be in graduate-level courses (course numbers ≥ 200), including at least twelve units in graduate-level courses in the major field; twelve additional units are in graduate or upper-division courses; and at least six units in research work leading to the thesis. Students should contact a thesis adviser and coadviser prior to, or as part of, the application process. Students are rarely accepted into the program without this prior consultation. This two-member faculty committee, in consultation with the student and the geophysics MS program director, will select the courses and research topic to be completed in two years or less.

Plan IIComprehensive Exam. This course of study is intended to be completed in a single year and requires a minimum of thirty-six credit units. At least twenty-four units must be from Category A and will be selected in consultation with the geophysics MS program director. The remaining twelve units are electives chosen from either Category A or B, or other courses taken with permission of the geophysics MS program director. Students must pass a comprehensive final examination at the end of the spring quarter of the first year, which will cover material in the Category A course work.

Category A courses (24 units):
Category B courses (24 units):

Students are encouraged to participate in SIO 239, Special Topics in Geophysics, where students have a chance to practice their speaking skills before their peers.

Geosciences Curriculum

The geosciences curriculum consists of a series of core courses and a series of research focus courses.

Required course work (16 units):
Elective course work:

In consultation with the guidance committee, the student will select the remaining graduate-level course work to fulfill the remaining credits available.

Recommended course work (may not be used to substitute for the geology, geophysics and geochemistry core requirements):
Comprehensive examination:

The geosciences departmental exam consists of a written portion and an oral portion.

Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry Curriculum
Required course work (12 units):
Elective course work (24 units):

Students in this curricular group are required to take six elective courses. These required electives must be four-unit courses that are offered at the graduate level, and that have been approved by the curricular group as suitable electives. When a student desires to take an elective course, he or she must seek approval from their guidance committee.

Comprehensive examination:

The marine chemistry and geochemistry students will take an oral examination based on content of their required course work.

Ocean Biosciences Program

Biological Oceanography
Required course work (28 units):
Elective course work (8 units):

Other course work will be recommended by the student’s guidance committee, usually including one quarter of SIO 278, Seminar in Ocean Biosciences (or equivalent participatory seminar), each quarter; a course in introductory parametric statistics; and at least one advanced-level course in physical, chemical, or geological oceanography.

Comprehensive examination:

The biological oceanography oral departmental examination covers the material in the required courses.

Marine Biology

Marine Biology
Required course work (12 units):
Elective course work (24 units):

Students may fulfill the remaining units of required course work through elective course offerings that may be recommended by the guidance committee. This typically includes SIO 290, Marine Biology.

Comprehensive examination:

For the MB’s oral departmental examination, students will be expected to demonstrate competence in the material covered in the required course work as well as any other course work recommended by the guidance committee.

Marine Chemical Biology Track
Required course work (12 units):
Recommended course work (21–25 units):

Students are required to complete 36 course units during the first year of study.

Elective course work:
Comprehensive examination:

The MCB track departmental exam consists of an oral exam based on course work.

Scholarship Requirement

The thirty-six units of required course work must be taken for a letter grade (A–F), except for seminars for which only S/U grades are allowed. Students must maintain a GPA of 3.0 overall.

Language Requirements

The department has no formal language requirements. All students must be proficient in English.

Special Financial Assistance and Fellowships

Students may obtain teaching assistantships, and graduate student researcher positions, fellowships, and other awards available on a campuswide competitive basis.

The Doctoral Program

Programs of Study

Programs of study vary widely among the curricular groups, but generally first-year students are expected to enroll in core courses that cover physical, geological, chemical, and biological oceanography. Each first-year student is assigned a guidance committee consisting of three faculty members. The guidance committee is charged with advising the student during the first year, until the departmental exam. The intention is to provide individualized guidance to students particularly including advice about courses of study that may reach beyond a single curricular group.

By the end of the first year, students usually select a particular area of focus and choose an adviser. As students advance beyond the first year, they begin to function effectively as research assistants or, in some cases, as teaching assistants. During their third to fifth year they are working toward writing their dissertations.

Programs of study for the first year vary among the three programs.

Climate-Ocean-Atmosphere Program

Students admitted to Climate-Ocean-Atmosphere Program (COAP) choose a curricular group by the end of the fall quarter. This choice is aided by the student’s guidance committee, which includes a chair or curricular group adviser from one of the COAP curricular groups. The guidance committee will help to arrange an individually tailored set of first-year courses for the student, and to ensure that the student has taken all necessary courses to prepare for the departmental exam. During the year, students may be supported in a variety of ways, but by the end of the spring quarter students must choose a research adviser. After the first year the guidance committee is dissolved, and the research adviser and dissertation committee provide guidance.

Applied Ocean Science—The Applied Ocean Science (AOS) academic program is designed to provide both a broad background and a core technical base to support the diverse interests and activities of the students. Early participation in an ongoing research project is encouraged. However, specialization and focus on a specific thesis topic is not required until the second or third year of the program. Required courses include SIO 214A, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, and the two-quarter Wave Physics sequence, SIO 202A-B. Two of the four SIO introductory courses (SIO 210, 240, 260, 280), must be completed during the first year, with the remaining two required prior to passing the doctoral qualifying exam at the end of the third year. In addition, the applied math sequence SIO 203 A-B or MAE 294 A-B or Math 210 A-B (Mathematical Methods in Physics and Engineering) is taken in either the first or second year of study. The AOS Seminar, SIO 208 serves as a communications bridge across the program; enrollment in this seminar is required during the student’s entire period of study. Beyond these core classes, the majority of each student’s academic program is tailored to individual interests. The AOS departmental examination, held at the end of the first year, is based on the core technical courses SIO 214A, SIO 202A-B, and two of the four introductory courses (chosen by the student). The exam has both oral and written components.

Climate Sciences—The emphasis of this curricular group is on education through interdisciplinary research. All students are responsible for the fundamental material in the following core courses: SIO 210, 217A-B-C, 260. Students are also expected to supplement their backgrounds with five to seven additional courses, including, for most climate sciences students, at least one additional quarter of fluid dynamics. These additional course(s) will be chosen in consultation with the students’ advisers. It is recommended that students participate actively in at least two quarters of seminar courses designed to complement and stimulate individual research. Though the group stresses interactions across disciplines, students will specialize in a particular subdiscipline or track that will be chosen by the student following discussions with a three-person guidance committee soon after arrival. Examples of current tracks include: (1) atmospheric/ocean/climate dynamics and physics; (2) atmospheric chemistry (emphasizing climatic interactions); and (3) paleoclimate studies. Additional course requirements for these tracks will be tailored to the needs of the individual student.

Physical Oceanography—The physical oceanography curriculum combines a comprehensive program of course work with individually tailored specialization to meet student needs. At the start of each quarter during the first year, the guidance committee meets with students to help them select course work appropriate for their individual research interests. For example, students might choose to focus on observational physical oceanography, theoretical physical oceanography, or atmosphere/ocean interactions. Students in all areas of physical oceanography are required to take SIO 203A-B, 214A, 212A. Twelve additional four-unit graduate courses are required to meet the PhD requirement. Students normally take a total of twelve four-unit graduate courses in the first year, and at least four additional four-unit courses after the first year. For PhD students who apply to receive an MS, a total of nine four-unit courses are required. As part of the overall requirement, course work should include a breadth component of two or more four-unit courses in other scientific disciplines. These might come from the Scripps Oceanography core courses in other oceanographic disciplines (SIO 240, 260, 280) or from related graduate-level courses taught at UC San Diego.

Any exception to the policy above requires written approval by the department chair in consultation with the guidance committee chair.

Physical oceanography students are required to take the departmental examination after completing one year of graduate work at UC San Diego. The examination covers the material in the four required courses and in eight additional first-year graduate courses chosen by the student in consultation with the guidance committee chair.

The Department of Scripps Institution of Oceanography offers regular seminars in several areas of current interest. After the departmental exam, students in residence are strongly encouraged to enroll for credit in at least one one-unit seminar each quarter.

Geosciences of the Earth, Oceans, and Planets

Students admitted to Geosciences of the Earth, Oceans, and Planets (GEO) are assigned an adviser, who is the chair of the three-person guidance committee. Based on the student’s interests and the major affiliation of the adviser, students are assigned to a curricular group on admission. Although students may change curricular groups in the course of the year, they must choose which departmental exam they will take. Departmental exams have similar structures among the curricular groups within GEO (a written exam at the end of spring quarter and an oral exam before the beginning of fall quarter). The material covered is quite different so students must begin preparing for the particular exam from the start. Student support for the first year comes from a variety of sources including departmental fellowships and research grants. Students are encouraged to begin a research project from the beginning and typically do not hold teaching assistant positions during their first year. Students may change advisers during their first year, and they must find an adviser by the end of the first year.

Geophysics—There is no single course of study appropriate to the geophysics curriculum; instead, the individual interests of the student will permit, in consultation with the first-year guidance committee, a choice of course work in seismology, geomagnetism, etc. The content of six core courses taken during the first year (SIO 223B, SIO 224, SIO 225, SIO 227A, SIO 229, SIO 234) forms the basis for the written departmental examination. Those lacking adequate preparation in probability and statistics are encouraged to take SIO 221B, or a comparable course, before enrolling in SIO 223B. Students should also consider taking SIO 233 if they have little experience in programming. Finally, students are also encouraged to participate in the Special Topics seminars (SIO 239) where students have a chance to practice their speaking skills before their peers.

Geosciences—The geosciences curriculum consists of a series of core courses and a series of research focus courses.  Students are expected to take at least nine classes and at least four units of research per quarter during their first year for a total of at least forty-eight units. All students are responsible for material in Marine Geology (SIO 240). Additionally students must take at least one geophysics, one geochemistry, and one geology class from the following groups of core classes. Geophysics core classes include Introduction to Geophysics (SIO 103), Geodynamics (SIO 234), Rock Magnetism and Paleomagnetism (SIO 247), and Introduction to Marine Geophysics (SIO 226). Geochemistry core classes include Marine Sediments-Paleo Proxies (SIO 245),  Whole Earth Geochemistry (SIO 251), and Introduction to Isotope Geochemistry (SIO 252A). Geology core classes include Stratigraphy and Sedimentology (SIO 105), Introduction to Volcanology (SIO 170), Geological Record of Climate Change (SIO 201), Shape and Structure of the Ocean Floor (SIO 244), and Interactions of Oceanic Plates and the California Margin (SIO 253). Students are also encouraged to take Introduction to Computers at SIO (SIO 233), Analysis for Physical Oceanographic Data (SIO 221B), Physical Oceanography (SIO 210), Marine Chemistry (SIO 260), and Biological Oceanography (SIO 280), but these may not be used to substitute for the geology, geophysics and geochemistry core requirements.

Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry—In their first year at Scripps Oceanography, students in this curricular group are required to take SIO 210, 260, and either SIO 280 or SIO 240, as well as three additional elective courses. In their second year, students are required to take a further three elective courses. Although the exact choice of such courses will depend on the student’s research interests, these required electives must be four-unit courses that are offered at the graduate level, and that have been approved by the curricular group as suitable electives. A list of approved courses is on file at the Department of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. If a student desires to take (as a required elective) a course that is not already on this list, he or she should consult with one of the curricular group advisers to get approval.

Ocean Biosciences Program

Students admitted to Ocean Bioscience Program (OBP) are assigned an adviser, who is a chair of the three-person guidance committee. Students are assigned to a curricular group based on their interests. Although students may change curricular groups near the beginning of the year, they must commit to a curricular group early on because this determines which departmental exam they will take. The biological oceanography departmental exam is an oral exam based on first-year course work. The MB track departmental exam is a written report and an oral presentation based on first-year research. The MCB track departmental exam is a written report and seminar presentation based on first-year research, followed by an oral exam. The exams are administered after or near the end of spring quarter. During the year, students may be supported in a variety of ways. After the first year, the guidance committee is dissolved and the research adviser, and eventually the dissertation committee, provide guidance.

Biological Oceanography—The student will be expected to be familiar with the material presented in the following courses: SIO 210, 240, 260, 270 or 270A, 275A or 277, 280, and at least one of SIO 271, 282, 283, 284 or 294. Other course work ordinarily will be recommended by the student’s guidance committee, usually including SIO 278 (or equivalent participatory seminar) one quarter of each year, a course in introductory parametric statistics, and at least one advanced-level course in physical, chemical, or geological oceanography. Participation in an oceanographic cruise (minimum of two weeks’ duration) and service as a teaching assistant (one quarter) are required.

Marine Biology

Marine Biology (MB)—Marine biology graduate students are expected to gain research experience in one or more laboratories during their first year. In the spring term of their first year at Scripps, students will take a departmental exam consisting of a presentation of their first-year research in the form of a paper and short talk to the curricular group, followed by a meeting with their first-year advisory committee. In this exam they also will be expected to demonstrate competence in the material covered in the following courses: SIO 210, 260, 280, 290A-B as well as any other course work recommended by the advisory committee. After their first year students are expected to enroll and actively participate in at least one seminar course (SIO 278, 296, or equivalent) per year that will provide in-depth knowledge and reading in selected areas, as well as practice presenting scientific material. In addition to the seminar requirement discussed above, second-year students will present their research in a special marine biology mini-symposium, held in spring quarter; students in the second through fourth years are expected to participate in the research presentation class (SIO 291) each year. Marine biology students provide annual spring quarter oral or poster presentations of their research through their fifth year.

Marine Chemical Biology (MCB)—Marine chemical biology students are required to complete SIO core courses including SIO 210, Physical Oceanography; SIO 260, Marine Chemistry; and SIO 280, Biological Oceanography. In the spring term of their first year at SIO, students will take a departmental exam consisting of a presentation of their first-year research in the form of a paper and short talk to the curricular group, followed by a meeting with their first-year guidance committee. In this exam they also will be expected to demonstrate competence in the material covered in the following courses: SIO 210, 260, and 280 as well as any other course work recommended by the guidance committee. Marine chemical biology graduate students are expected to gain research experience in one or more laboratories during their first year. Additional courses that are recommended as electives in this track, the exact composition of which will be decided by discussion between the student and the student’s first-year guidance committee, include Chem 257, Bioorganic and Natural Products Chemistry; SIO 242A-B, Marine Biotechnology I and II; SIO 264, Special Topics in Marine Natural Products Chemistry; and at least one of the following two courses: Chem 254, Mechanisms of Organic Reactions, and/or Chem 258, Applied Spectroscopy. These are typically taken over the first two years of study. Additional electives, seminar courses, and special topics courses in graduate science and oceanography are available. Second-year students will present their research along with students in the marine biology mini-symposium that is held in spring quarter.

Ethics Requirement

All PhD students are required to complete one of the approved UC San Diego Responsible Conduct of Research courses before taking their qualifying exam, effective July 2011. Students who previously advanced to candidacy and who will receive National Science Foundation or National Institutes of Health support prior to the completion of their PhD are also required to complete the ethics requirement to remain eligible for their grant support. Students could complete the ethics requirement by taking SIO 232, Ethical and Professional Science, SIO 273, Professional Ethics in Science, or one of the ethics courses listed, http://ethics.ucsd.edu/courses/index.html.

Language Requirements

The department has no formal language requirements. All students must be proficient in English.

Qualifying Examinations

When the student has passed the departmental examination (described above under each academic program) and has completed an appropriate period of additional study, the department will recommend appointment of a doctoral committee that will supervise the student’s performance and reporting of his or her research. The doctoral committee must be formed before the student may proceed to the qualifying examination.

The doctoral committee will determine the student’s qualifications for independent research by means of a qualifying examination, which will be administered no later than the end of the third year. The nature of the qualifying examination varies between curricular groups. In biological oceanography, marine biology, geosciences, physical oceanography, applied ocean science, and climate sciences the student will be expected to describe his or her proposed thesis research and satisfy the committee, in an oral examination, as to mastery of this and related topics. In marine chemistry and geochemistry the student, in an oral examination, is required to present and defend a single research proposition in his or her specialized area. The student also is required to provide a written summary of the research proposition, with references, prior to the examination. In geophysics, the student presents an original research problem, in the form of a written proposition, to the doctoral committee. The student’s oral presentation and defense of this proposition completes the examination.

Dissertation

A requirement for the PhD is the submission of a dissertation and a final examination in which the thesis is publicly defended. Students are encouraged to publish appropriate parts of their theses in the scientific literature. Individual chapters may be published as research articles prior to completion of the dissertation.

Departmental PhD Time Limit Policies

Students must complete a qualifying examination by the end of three years, and must be advanced to candidacy for the PhD by the end of four years. Total university support may not exceed seven years and total registered time at UC San Diego may not exceed eight years.

Special Financial Assistance and Fellowships

In addition to teaching assistantships, and graduate student researcher positions, fellowships, traineeships, and other awards available on a campuswide competitive basis, the department has available a certain number of fellowships and graduate student researcher positions supported from research grants and contracts, or from industrial contributions.

Earthquake Science and Applied Geophysics Joint Doctoral Program with SDSU

A joint graduate group from the geophysics program of Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego) and the Department of Geological Sciences at San Diego State University (SDSU) established a joint doctoral program in geophysics in 2010. The complementary specialties and ongoing, vigorous collaborations between the two groups result in two focus areas: earthquake science, and applied geophysics. Integrating geophysics at UC San Diego and SDSU provides outstanding opportunities for students to develop the skills needed to address important local, regional, and global societal problems where geophysics can contribute to the solutions. Strong capabilities are in

  1. earthquake-hazard investigations (incorporating tools such as observational and computational seismology, airborne and satellite-based geodesy and remote sensing, and earthquake geology), and
  2. energy, resource, and environmental exploration methods (mainly land and marine seismology and electromagnetics).

Graduates of the program will be prepared to begin rewarding geophysics careers and assume leadership roles as university faculty, government scientists, and industry researchers. Joint UC San Diego and SDSU committees administer and monitor the admission, advising, evaluation, graduation, and all other academic processes related to the joint doctoral program. Students will spend at least one academic year of residency at each campus. A doctor of philosophy (PhD) in geophysics will be awarded upon completion of the program in the names of The Regents of the University of California on behalf of UC San Diego and The Trustees of the California State University on behalf of SDSU. Prospective applicants should apply through SDSU. More information can be found at the San Diego State University website, http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/jdp/.

Concurrent PhD/MBA Program

The Department of Scripps Institution of Oceanography offers a concurrent degree program allowing interested PhD students to complete an MBA at the Rady School of Management. Students who are admitted to Scripps may, with the consent of their academic adviser, apply to Rady, through the usual admissions process, to begin the MBA program no earlier than after the completion of their departmental exam, and no later than the fall quarter following their advancement to candidacy, in line with specific plans developed with their Scripps faculty advisers. An extensive independent study, jointly supervised by Scripps and Rady faculty, enables the student to develop linkages between Scripps and Rady studies. Interested students are encouraged to consult early with Rady MBA Admissions and with their Scripps academic advisers.

For the Marine Biodiversity and Conservation MAS program, refer to the separate UC San Diego General Catalog listing.