Philosophy

[ undergraduate program | graduate program | faculty ]

All courses, faculty listings, and curricular and degree requirements described herein are subject to change or deletion without notice. Updates may be found on the Academic Senate website: http://senate.ucsd.edu/catalog-copy/approved-updates/.

Courses

For course descriptions not found in the UC San Diego General Catalog, 2014–15, please contact the department for more information.

Lower Division

1. Introduction to Philosophy (4)

A general introduction to some of the fundamental questions, texts, and methods of philosophy. Multiple topics will be covered, and may include the existence of God, the nature of mind and body, free will, ethics and political philosophy, knowledge and skepticism.

10. Introduction to Logic (4)

Basic concepts and techniques in both informal and formal logic and reasoning, including a discussion of argument, inference, proof, and common fallacies, and an introduction to the syntax, semantics, and proof method in sentential (propositional) logic. May be used to fulfill general-education requirements for Warren and Eleanor Roosevelt Colleges.

12. Scientific Reasoning (4)

Strategies of scientific inquiry: how elementary logic, statistical inference, and experimental design are integrated to evaluate hypotheses in the natural and social sciences. May be used to fulfill general-education requirements for Marshall, Warren, and Eleanor Roosevelt Colleges.

13. Introduction to Philosophy: Ethics (4)

An inquiry into the nature of morality and its role in personal or social life by way of classical and/or contemporary works in ethics. May be used to fulfill general-education requirements for Muir and Marshall Colleges.

14. Introduction to Philosophy: The Nature of Reality (4)

A survey of central issues and figures in the Western metaphysical tradition. Topics include the mind-body problem, freedom and determinism, personal identity, appearance and reality, and the existence of God.

15. Introduction to Philosophy: Knowledge and Its Limits (4)

A study of the grounds and scope of human knowledge, both commonsense and scientific, as portrayed in the competing traditions of Continental rationalism, British empiricism, and contemporary cognitive science.

25. Science, Philosophy, and the Big Questions (4)

An inquiry into fundamental questions at the intersection of science and philosophy. Topics can include Einstein’s universe; scientific revolutions; the mind and the brain.

26.  Science, Society, and Values (4)

An exploration of the interaction between scientific theory and practice on the one hand, and society and values on the other. Topics can include the relationship between science and religion, global climate change, DNA, medicine, and ethics.

27. Ethics and Society (4)

An examination of ethical principles (e.g., utilitarianism, individual rights, etc.) and their social and political applications to contemporary issues: abortion, environmental protection, and affirmative action. Ethical principles will also be applied to moral dilemmas in government, law, business, and the professions. Warren College students must take course for a letter grade in order to satisfy the Warren College general-education requirement. Prerequisites: CAT 2 and 3 or DOC 2 and 3 or MCWP 40 and 50 or Hum 1 and 2 or MMW 2 and 3 or WCWP 10A and B.

28. Ethics and Society II (4)

An examination of a single set of major contemporary social, political, or economic issues (e.g., environmental ethics, international ethics) in light of ethical and moral principles and values. Warren College students must take course for a letter grade in order to satisfy the Warren College general-education requirement. Prerequisites: Philosophy 27 or Poli Sci 27.

31. Introduction to Ancient Philosophy (4)

A survey of classical Greek philosophy with an emphasis on Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, though some consideration may be given to Presocratic and/or Hellenistic philosophers.

32. Philosophy and the Rise of Modern Science (4)

Beginning with the contrast between medieval and early modern thought, the course focuses on the relation of seventeenth-century philosophy and the emergence of modern natural science. Figures to be studied include Bacon, Galileo, Descartes, Hobbes, Leibniz, and Newton.

33. Philosophy between Reason and Despair (4)

Introduction to nineteenth-century philosophy, focusing on skepticism about the authority of reason to answer questions about the ultimate meaning and value of human life. Figures discussed may include Kant, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and James.

87. Freshman Seminar (1)

The Freshman Seminar Program is designed to provide new students with the opportunity to explore an intellectual topic with a faculty member in a small seminar setting. Freshman Seminars are offered in all campus departments and undergraduate colleges, and topics vary from quarter to quarter. Enrollment is limited to fifteen to twenty students, with preference given to entering freshmen.

90. Basic Problem in Philosophy (4)

An investigation of a selected philosophical topic through readings, discussions, and written assignments. May be taken for credit twice, when topics vary.

Upper Division

100. Plato (4)

A study of Socrates and/or Plato through major dialogues of Plato. Possible topics include the virtues and happiness; weakness of the will; political authority and democracy; the theory of Forms and sensible flux; immortality; relativism, skepticism, and knowledge. May be repeated for credit with change of content and approval of instructor. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

101. Aristotle (4)

A study of major issues in Aristotle’s works, such as the categories; form and matter; substance, essence, and accident; the soul; virtue, happiness, and politics. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

102. Hellenistic Philosophy (4)

A study of selected texts from the main schools of Hellenistic philosophy—Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Skepticism. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

104. The Rationalists (4)

The major writings of one or more of the seventeenth century rationalists—Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz. Topics include the existence of God, the mind-body problem, free will, the nature of knowledge, belief, and error. May be repeated for credit with change of content and approval of instructor. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

105. The Empiricists (4)

The major writings of one or more of the British empiricists—Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Reid. May be repeated for credit with change of content and approval of instructor. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

106. Kant (4)

A study of selected portions of the Critique of Pure Reason and other theoretical writings and/or his major works in moral theory. May be repeated for credit with change in content and approval of the instructor. Prerequisites: Philosophy 32 or 33 or 104 or 105 or 111 or 112 or consent of instructor.

107. Hegel (4)

A study of one or more of Hegel’s major works, in particular, The Phenomenology of Spirit and The Philosophy of Right. Readings and discussion may also include other figures in the Idealist tradition—such as Fichte, Hölderlin, and Schelling—and critics of the Idealist tradition—such as Marx and Kierkegaard. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

108. Nineteenth-Century Philosophy (4)

A study of one or more figures in nineteenth-century philosophy, such as Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Marx, Emerson, Thoreau, James, and Mill. The focus may be on particular figures or intellectual themes and traditions. May be repeated for credit with change of content and approval of instructor. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

109. History of Analytic Philosophy (4)

Central texts, figures, and traditions in analytic philosophy. Figures may include Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, Carnap, Moore, Austin, Tarski, Quine, Davidson, Kripke, and Putnam. May be repeated for credit with change of content and approval of the instructor. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

110. History of Philosophy: Ancient (4)

An examination of ancient Greek philosophy, focusing on major works of Plato and Aristotle. Philosophy 110, Philosophy 111, and Philosophy 112 should be taken in order. Prerequisites: upper-division standing and department stamp or consent of instructor.

111. History of Philosophy: Early Modern (4)

An examination of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century philosophy, focusing on major works of Descartes, Locke, and Hume. Philosophy 110, Philosophy 111, and Philosophy 112 should be taken in order. Prerequisites: Philosophy 110, upper-division standing and department stamp or consent of instructor.

112. History of Philosophy: Late Modern (4)

An examination of late eighteenth and nineteenth-century philosophy, focusing on major works of Kant and Hegel. Philosophy 110, Philosophy 111, and Philosophy 112 should be taken in order. Prerequisites: Philosophy 111, upper-division standing and department stamp or consent of instructor.

115. Philosophical Methods Seminar (4)

This course provides an introduction to the techniques of philosophical inquiry through detailed study of selected philosophical texts and through extensive training in philosophical writing based on those texts. Enrollment limited and restricted to majors; must be taken for letter grade. May not be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: open to philosophy majors only.

120. Symbolic Logic I (4)

The syntax, semantics, and proof-theory of first-order predicate logic with identity, emphasizing both conceptual issues and practical skills (e.g., criteria for logical truth, consistency, and validity; the application of logical methods to everyday as well as scientific reasoning). Prerequisites: Philosophy 10 or consent of instructor.

122. Advanced Topics in Logic (4)

Topics vary from year to year. They include: Metalogic (Mathematical Logic), Modal Logic, Foundations of Logic, Foundations of Set Theory, Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems, and others. Prerequisites: Philosophy 120 or consent of instructor.

123. Philosophy of Logic (4)

Philosophical issues underlying standard and nonstandard logics, the nature of logical knowledge, the relation between logic and mathematics, the revisability of logic, truth and logic, ontological commitment and ontological relativity, logical consequence, etc. May be repeated for credit with change in content and approval of instructor. Prerequisites: Philosophy 120 or consent of instructor.

124. Philosophy of Mathematics (4)

The character of logical and mathematical truth and knowledge; the relations between logic and mathematics; the significance of Godel’s incompleteness theorem; Platonism, logicism, and more recent approaches. Prerequisites: Philosophy 120 or consent of instructor.

126. Topics in the History of Logic (4)

Problems and figures in history of logic. Subject matter varies, in some cases a single author or text (e.g., Aristotle, The Port Royal Logic, Leibniz, Kant, Frege, Tarski), in other a particular tradition or problem (e.g., Hilbert’s Program, intuitionism, quantification, logicism and psychologism, modality). Prerequisites: Philosophy 120 or consent of instructor.

130. Metaphysics (4)

Central problems in metaphysics, such as free will and determinism, the mind-body problem, personal identity, causation, primary and secondary qualities, the nature of universals, necessity, and identity. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

131. Topics in Metaphysics (4)

An in-depth study of some central problem, figure, or tradition in metaphysics. May be repeated for credit with change of content and approval of instructor. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

132. Epistemology (4)

Central problems in epistemology such as skepticism; a priori knowledge; knowledge of other minds; self-knowledge; the problem of induction; foundationalist, coherence, and causal theories of knowledge. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

134. Philosophy of Language (4)

Examination of contemporary debates about meaning, reference, truth, and thought. Topics include descriptional theories of reference, sense and reference, compositionality, truth, theories of meaning, vagueness, metaphor, and natural and formal languages. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

136. Philosophy of Mind (4)

Different conceptions of the nature of mind and its relation to the physical world. Topics include identity theories, functionalism, eliminative materialism, internalism and externalism, subjectivity, other minds, consciousness, self-knowledge, perception, memory, and imagination. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

137. Moral Psychology (4)

The nature of action and psychological explanation. Topics include action individuation, reasons as causes, psychological laws, freedom and responsibility, weakness of will, self-deception, and the emotions. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

145. Philosophy of Science (4)

Central problems in philosophy of science, such as the nature of confirmation and explanation, the nature of scientific revolutions and progress, the unity of science, and realism and antirealism. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

146. Philosophy of Physics (4)

Philosophical problems in the development of modern physics, such as the philosophy of space and time, the epistemology of geometry, the philosophical significance of Einstein’s theory of relativity, the interpretation of quantum mechanics, and the significance of modern cosmology. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

147. Philosophy of Biology (4)

Philosophical problems in the biological sciences, such as the relation between biology and the physical sciences, the status and structure of evolutionary theory, and the role of biology in the social sciences. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

148. Philosophy and the Environment (4)

Investigation of ethical and epistemological questions concerning our relationship to the environment. Topics may include the value of nature, biodiversity, policy and science, and responsibility to future generations. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

149. Philosophy of Psychology (4)

Philosophical issues raised by psychology, including the nature of psychological explanation, the role of nature versus nurture, free will and determinism, and the unity of the person. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

150. Philosophy of the Cognitive Sciences (4)

Theoretical, empirical, methodological, and philosophical issues at work in the cognitive sciences (e.g., psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, and computer science), concerning things such as mental representation, consciousness, rationality, explanation, and nativism. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

151. Philosophy of Neuroscience (4)

An introduction to elementary neuroanatomy and neurophysiology and an examination of theoretical issues in cognitive neuroscience and their implications for traditional philosophical conceptions of the relation between mind and body, perception, consciousness, understanding, emotion, and the self. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

152. Philosophy of Social Science (4)

Philosophical issues of method and substance in the social sciences, such as causal and interpretive models of explanation, structuralism and methodological individualism, value neutrality, and relativism. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

160. Ethical Theory (4)

Systematic and/or historical perspectives on central issues in ethical theory such as deontic, contractualist, and consequentialist conceptions of morality; rights and special obligations; the role of happiness and virtue in morality; moral conflict; ethical objectivity and relativism; and the rational authority of morality. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

161. Topics in the History of Ethics (4)

Central issues and texts in the history of ethics. Subject matter can vary, ranging from one philosopher (e.g., Aristotle, Hobbes, Kant, or Mill) to a historical tradition (e.g., Greek ethics or the British moralists). May be repeated for credit with change in content and approval of instructor. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

162. Contemporary Moral Issues (4)

An examination of contemporary moral issues, such as abortion, euthanasia, war, affirmative action, and freedom of speech. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

163. Biomedical Ethics (4)

Moral issues in medicine and the biological sciences, such as patient’s rights and physician’s responsibilities, abortion and euthanasia, the distribution of health care, experimentation, and genetic intervention. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

164. Technology and Human Values (4)

Philosophical issues involved in the development of modern science, the growth of technology, and control of the natural environment. The interaction of science and technology with human nature and political and moral ideals. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

166. Classics in Political Philosophy (4)

Central issues about the justification, proper functions, and limits of the state through classic texts in the history of political philosophy by figures such as Plato, Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Mill, and Marx. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

167. Contemporary Political Philosophy (4)

Different perspectives on central issues in contemporary political philosophy, such as the nature of state authority and political obligation, the limits of government and individual liberty, liberalism and its critics, equality and distributive justice. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

168. Philosophy of Law (4)

A study of issues in analytical jurisprudence such as the nature of law, the relation between law and morality, and the nature of legal interpretation and issues in normative jurisprudence such as the justification of punishment, paternalism and privacy, freedom of expression, and affirmative action. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

169. Feminism and Philosophy (4)

Philosophical examination of core concepts and theses in feminism, feminist philosophy, and critiques of traditional philosophical approaches to morality, politics, and science, from a feminist perspective. May also treat the historical development of feminist philosophy and its critiques. May be taken for credit two times with permission of instructor. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

170. Philosophy and Race (4)

A philosophical investigation of the topics of race and racism. The role of “race” in ordinary speech. The ethics of racial discourse. Anthropological and biological conceptions of race. The social and political significance of racial categories. Post-racialist conceptions of race. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

175. Aesthetics (4)

Central issues in philosophical aesthetics such as the nature of art and aesthetic experience, the grounds of artistic interpretation and evaluation, artistic representation, and the role of the arts in education, culture, and politics. May be taken for credit two times. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

177. Philosophy and Literature (4)

A study of philosophical themes contained in selected fiction, drama, or poetry, and the philosophical issues that arise in the interpretation, appreciation, and criticism of literature. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

178. Topics in German Philosophy Translation—Intermediate (2)

Careful, line-by-line translation of passages of intermediate difficulty from German philosophical texts, both classic (Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Schopenhauer) and contemporary (Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Habermas). P/NP grades only. May be taken for credit six times as topics vary. LIGM 1D or equivalent level of study recommended. Prerequisites: consent of instructor and preauthorization.

179. Topics in German Philosophy Translation—Advanced (2)

Continuation of Philosophy 178 in the careful, line-by-line translation of passages of advanced difficulty from German philosophical texts, both classic (Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Schopenhauer) and contemporary (Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Habermas). May be repeated for credit as topics vary. Prerequisites: consent of instructor or completion of Philosophy 178.

180. Phenomenology (4)

An examination of the phenomenological tradition through the works of its major classical and/or contemporary representatives. Authors studied will vary and may include Brentano, Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Levinas, Bourdieu. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

181. Existentialism (4)

Classical texts and issues of existentialism. Authors studied will vary and may include Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and Heidegger. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

183. Topics in Continental Philosophy (4)

The focus will be on a leading movement in continental philosophy (e.g., the critical theory of the Frankfurt school, structuralism and deconstruction, postmodernism) or some particular issue that has figured in these traditions (e.g., freedom, subjectivity, historicity, authenticity). May be repeated for credit with change in content and approval of instructor. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

185. Philosophy of Religion (4)

A general introduction to the philosophy of religion through the study of classical and/or contemporary texts. Among the issues to be discussed are the existence and nature of God, the problem of evil, the existence of miracles, the relation between reason and revelation, and the nature of religious language. Prerequisites: upper-division standing or consent of instructor.

191A. Philosophy Honors (4)

Independent study by special arrangement with and under the supervision of a faculty member, including a proposal for the honors essay. An IP grade will be awarded at the end of this quarter; a final grade will be given for both quarters at the end of 191B. Prerequisites: department stamp; consent of instructor.

191B. The Honors Essay (4)

Continuation of 191A: independent study by special arrangement with and under the supervision of a faculty member, leading to the completion of the honors essay. A letter grade for both 191A and 191B will be given at the end of this quarter. Prerequisites: consent of instructor.

192. Senior Seminar (1)

The Senior Seminar Program is designed to allow senior undergraduates to meet with faculty members in a small group setting to explore an intellectual topic in PHIL (at the upper-division level). Senior Seminars may be taken for credit up to four times, with a change in topic, and permission of the department. Enrollment is limited to twenty students, with preference given to seniors. Prerequisites: upper-division standing; department stamp and/or consent of instructor.

195. Introduction to Teaching Philosophy (4)

Under the supervision of the instructor, student will lead one discussion section of a lower-division philosophy class. The student must attend the lecture for the class and meet regularly with the instructor. Applications are available in the Department of Philosophy. Prerequisites: consent of instructor and department chair, GPA of 3.0 or higher, over ninety units.

199. Directed Individual Study (4)

Directed individual study by special arrangement with and under the supervision of a faculty member. (P/NP grades only.) Prerequisites: consent of instructor.

Graduate Courses

200. Proseminar (4)

Introduction to philosophical methods of analysis through study of classic historical or contemporary texts. Writing intensive. Enrollment limited to entering graduate students.

201A. Core Course in History (4)

A study of selected texts or topics in the history of philosophy. Usually the focus will be on a single major text. May be taken for credit nine times with changed content.

202. Core Course in Ethics (4)

An introduction to some central issues in ethical theory with emphasis on classic texts or contemporary authors. May be taken for credit three times with changed content.

204A. Core Course in Philosophy of Science (4)

An introduction to one or more central problems in the philosophy of science, or in the philosophy of one of the particular sciences, such as the nature of confirmation and explanation, the nature of scientific knowledge, reductionism, the unity of science, or realism and antirealism. May be taken for credit three times with changed content.

205A. Core Course in Metaphysics (4)

An introduction to central topics in metaphysics with emphasis on classic texts or contemporary authors. May be taken for credit three times with changed content.

206A. Core Course in Epistemology (4)

An introduction to central topics in epistemology with emphasis on classic texts or contemporary authors. May be taken for credit three times with changed content.

207. Core Course in Philosophy of Mind (4)

An introduction to central topics in philosophy of mind with emphasis on classic texts or contemporary authors. May be taken for credit three times with changed content. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

208. Core Course in Philosophy of Language (4)

An introduction to central topics in philosophy of language with emphasis on classic texts or contemporary authors. May be taken for credit three times with changed content. Prerequisites: graduate status or consent of instructor.

209A. Introduction to Science Studies (4)

Study and discussion of classic work in history of science, philosophy of science, and of work that attempts to develop a unified science studies approach. Required of all students in the Science Studies Program.

209B. Seminar in Science Studies (4)

Study and discussion of selected topics in the science studies field. Required of all students in the Science Studies Program. The topic varies from year to year and students may, therefore, repeat the course for credit. May be taken for credit three times with changed content.

209C. Colloquium in Science Studies (4)

A forum for the presentation and discussion of research in progress in science studies, by graduate students, faculty, and visitors. May be taken for credit two times with changed content.

209D. Advanced Approaches to Science Studies (4)

Contemporary themes and problems in science studies. Focus on recent literature in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science, technology, and medicine.

210. Greek Philosophy (4)

A study of selected texts or topics from the history of Greek philosophy. Usually centers on works by Plato or Aristotle. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

214. Early Modern Philosophy (4)

A study of selected texts or topics from philosophers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, or Locke. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

215. Eighteenth-Century Philosophy (4)

A study of selected texts or topics from philosophers of the eighteenth century: for example, Kant or Hume. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

218. Contemporary Analytical Philosophy (4)

A study of the historical development of the analytical movement, with emphasis on major texts. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

222. Philosophy of Logic (4)

A study of selected issues in the philosophy of logic. The focus may be on contemporary texts or historical works or both. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

230. Metaphysics (4)

Topics may include identity, personal identity, universals and particulars, modality and possible worlds, causation, reduction, supervenience, freedom and determinism, space and time, and realism versus antirealism. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

232. Epistemology (4)

This seminar will cover issues such as rival accounts of knowledge, justification, and warrant, traditional and contemporary perspectives on empiricism, rationalism, and pragmatism, and skepticism. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

234. Philosophy of Language (4)

Central issues in contemporary philosophy of language, such as the nature of linguistic meaning, truth, content, reference, the syntax and semantics of various linguistic constructions, presupposition, speech acts, the epistemology of language understanding and language learning, the mental/psychological basis of linguistic understanding and use. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

236. Philosophy of Mind (4)

Contemporary debates on the nature, function, and operation of the mental. May include questions about the mind-body relation, mental causation, perception, consciousness, and mental representation. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

245. Philosophy of Science (4)

This seminar will cover current books and theoretical issues in the philosophy of science. May be taken for credit seven times with changed content.

246. Philosophy of Physics (4)

Systematic problems and historical and contemporary perspectives on foundational issues in physics. May include issues in the philosophy of space and time, the interpretation of relativity theory and quantum mechanics, or the foundations of statistical mechanics and probability. May be taken for credit six times with changed content. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

247. Philosophy of Biology (4)

Historical and contemporary perspectives on foundational issues about biology. May include questions about the nature of biological explanation, the relation of biology to chemistry and physics, the status of attributions of function, and the relation of biology to the social sciences. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

250A. Philosophy of the Cognitive Sciences (4)

Contemporary debates about the study of the mind-brain as studied in one or more of the empirical cognitive sciences. May include questions about the different strategies of explanation invoked, the conceptions of representation employed, the connections between theoretical models developed. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

260. Ethics (4)

Topics may include metaethics (e.g., the semantics, metaphysics, epistemology, and normativity of ethics), consequentialism and deontology, moral psychology (e.g., freedom, responsibility, and weaknesses of will), or substantive moral problems. The approach may be systematic, historical, or both. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

267. Political Philosophy (4)

Topics may include the nature and limits of state authority, liberty and equality, distributive justice, liberalism and its critics (e.g., feminists, libertarians, and others), or issues in jurisprudence. The focus may be on classic texts or contemporary authors. May be taken for credit six times with changed content.

276. German Translation Workshop (1–2)

This course meets weekly to provide training in reading and translating philosophical German. Students prepare in advance written translations of assigned passages. The course helps train graduate students preparing to take the Departmental German Exam. Can be taken nine times for credit with changed content.

277. Phenomenology Reading Group (1–2)

This course meets biweekly with students reading and presenting material from the phenomenological literature. The course is designed both for students doing active research in phenomenology and for those seeking to gain some familiarity with that tradition. Can be taken nine times for credit with changed content.

278. Topics and Methods in Contemporary Philosophy (1–2)

Investigation of central issues in contemporary philosophy. Content varies but typically will center on a recent and important philosophical book. Can be taken nine times for credit with changed content.

279. Experimental Philosophy Laboratory (1–2)

A weekly forum of presentations, EPL provides a wider range of content than a traditional seminar. Content varies, but the focus is on philosophical problems of mind, representation, language and consciousness through empirical and philosophical methods. Can be taken nine times for credit with changed content.

280. Philosophy of Science Topics and Methods (1–2)

This course meets weekly to discuss recent books or articles in philosophy of science. The reading is designed both for students doing active research in the field and for those seeking to gain some familiarity with it. Can be taken nine times for credit with changed content.

281. History of Philosophy Research and Methods (1–2)

This course meets to discuss work in progress in the history of philosophy. Its aim is to introduce understanding of the methods and standards of research in the field through constructive criticism of each other’s work. Can be taken nine times for credit with changed content.

282. Topics and Methods in Ethics (1–2)

Weekly or biweekly meetings to discuss recent literature in ethics, broadly construed so as to include ethical theory, normative ethics, jurisprudence, and historical traditions in these fields. The course is suitable for those specializing in ethics and for those seeking some familiarity with the field. Can be taken nine times for credit with changed content.

284. Philosophy of Biology Research Group (1–2)

A research group for graduate students engaged in philosophy or history of the biological sciences. The group discusses biological, historical, and philosophical articles and books and ongoing research projects. Can be taken nine times for credit with change of content. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

285. Seminar on Special Topics (4)

Focused examination of specific problems or themes in some area of philosophy. May be taken for credit nine times with changed content.

286. Philosophy of Physics Reading Group (1–2)

A research group for graduate students engaged in philosophy or history of the physical sciences. The group discusses physical, historical, and philosophical articles and books and ongoing research projects. Can be taken nine times for credit with change of content. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

287. Greek Reading Group (1–2)

This group provides training in reading and translating philosophical Greek by having students prepare translations of passages and lead discussions. The group helps train graduate students preparing for Departmental Greek Exam. Can be taken nine times for credit with change of content. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

288. Latin Reading Group (1–2)

This group provides training in reading and translating philosophical Latin by having students prepare translations of passages and lead discussions. The group helps train graduate students preparing for departmental Latin exam. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

290. Directed Independent Study (4)

Supervised study of individually selected philosophical topics. S/U grades permitted.

292. Writing Workshop (1–3)

Each enrolled student produces a research essay ready for publication, presents it to students and faculty, and offers critiques of other students’ presentations. Units will vary according to enrollment in course. To be taken in fall quarter of third year of philosophy graduate study.

295. Research Topics (1–12)

Advanced individual research studies under the direction of a member of the staff. Hours of outside preparation will vary with number of units taken. May be taken for credit nine times with changed content.

299. Thesis Research (1–12)

S/U grades permitted.

500. Apprentice Teaching (1–4)

A course designed to satisfy the requirement that graduate students should serve as teaching assistants, either in the Department of Philosophy or in one of the writing programs offered by the various colleges. Each PhD candidate must teach the equivalent of quarter time for three academic quarters. Students are permitted to sign up as TAs for a maximum of eighteen quarters.